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Divorce can be a big, daunting animal. The legalities are overwhelming and the rules are many, plus the emotional and mental drain of the experience. As a result, many divorcing couples are drawn to mediation. They believe the process of divorce mediation in Michigan might...
Children and money – those are always the major elements of contention when it comes to working out a divorce settlement. But what about the family pet? Who gets custody of your pet when your marriage ends? What’s fair? And who decides?
Your Pet: Family or...
Michigan’s No Fault Divorce Act and the process of getting divorced
The Divorce Process – Michigan attorneys that can help.
Part II. Minor children: Child Custody help in Michigan. Divorce attorneys that care about your children
Issues involving minor children
Custody, parenting time (previously referred to as visitation) and support are three main areas of concern to the court. It is important to realize that these three issues can always be reviewed by the court upon request by either party. This includes after the judgment of divorce has been entered.
There are two types of custody, legal and physical. Legal custody concerns the decision making of the health, care, welfare, education, etc. of the child. This type of custody is almost always joint because the courts and judges want both parties to be involved in making these decisions in regard to minor children. Physical custody is where the children reside the majority of the time. Physical custody can be sole, joint, or split.
It should be noted here that children born out of wedlock, meaning between parties who are unmarried, is a completely different situation. This issue will be addressed later in the section entitled Paternity/Children Born From An Unmarried Couple.
Sole physical custody awards one party physical custody and the other party reasonable parenting time.
In joint custody situations each party shares physical custody of the children. In a pure joint physical custody arrangement each party would have the children for 182.5 overnights per year. This usually is not a feasible arrangement especially when the children become older. It usually is not feasible because of logistics and schooling. Many times the parties call the situation joint but it really is no different than sole physical with reasonable parenting time. Other times it is called joint physical custody and one party will have more liberal parenting time. This more liberal parenting time can be considered every weekend rather than every other. Regardless, a joint custody arrangement can be agreed upon by the parties with multiple parenting time options.
Split custody splits the custody of siblings between two parents. This is generally looked on with disfavor. The reason it is looked upon with disfavor is because it is thought that it is in the best interest of minor children to live and be together.
The FOC investigation
If the parties cannot agree on custody of the minor children then the FOC and/or court must get involved. Initially the FOC must conduct a complete investigation. During the investigation process, the FOC will interview the parties, review any documentation, interview the children and look at any other information which may be deemed relevant. After completing this investigation the FOC will then prepare a report and recommendation as to custody. In Michigan, the FOC and Court must determine what the “best interests of the child” is when deciding custody of a minor child. The best interests of the child are measured through a law which mandates that the following factors are to be used by the judge:
- The love, affection, and other emotional ties existing between the parties involved and the child;
- The capacity and disposition of the parties involved to give the child love, affection and guidance and continuation of the educating and raising of the child in the child’s religion or creed, if any;
- The capacity and disposition of the parties involved to provide the child with food, clothing, medical care or other remedial care recognized and permitted under the laws of this state in place of medical care, and other material needs;
- The length of time the child has lived in a stable, satisfactory environment, and the desirability of maintaining continuity;
- The permanence, as a family unit, of the existing or proposed custodial home or homes;
- The moral fitness of the parties involved;
- The mental and physical health of the parties involved;
- The home, school and community record of the child;
- The reasonable preference of the child, if the court deems the child to be of sufficient age to express a preference;
- The willingness and ability of each of the parents to facilitate and encourage a close and continuing parent-child relationship between the child and the other parent; and
- Any other factor considered by the Court to be relevant to a particular child custody dispute.
After the FOC completes their report and recommendation then the parties have various options. If the parties agree with the recommendation and all other issues are resolved they can enter into a judgment of divorce incorporating the recommendation. If the parties cannot agree then the matter must go to mediation, arbitration or trial. At trial, the judge must also use the above factors in determining the best interest of the minor children. Another option short of going to trial is to have a binding evidentiary hearing before a FOC Referee. Usually this is done if the only issue is custody and the parties desire to have the matter decided in a quicker fashion.
Michigan has a Child Support Guideline Manual which the Friend of the Court uses to recommend child support in Divorce cases. One of the key factors in the Guidelines is the “net income” of the non-custodial parent. Income includes not only base wages received from employment, but also includes such things as overtime, shift premiums, cost of living allowances, bonuses, annuities, certain dividends and even gambling winnings. The Guidelines also look as such things as second families, step children, health of the children, and child care expenses. The Guidelines are somewhat complicated and quite lengthy, but they are clearly used as a standard for setting child support by most Circuit Judges. The guidelines add up the total amount of “family income”, computes child support on the whole, assign a percentage to each contributing parent, and then requires the custodial parent to pay their percentage to the non-custodial parent.
In dealing with the issue of support other incidental issues are also dealt with by the FOC. These include medical coverage, out of pocket medical expenses and child care.
It should be noted that the manner of calculating child support has recently been changed. The changes are numerous but some of the highlights include calculating support on a monthly rather than weekly basis. Also, the actual overnight parenting time that the paying party has is a significant factor in determining the amount of support. An individual who was under a previous FOC support order should now seriously consider to have the FOC review the amount of support being paid because it may be significantly reduced with the new FOC guidelines.
Parenting time (visitation)
Parenting time (visitation) between the minor children and the non-custodial parent is also primarily based on what the Court believes is in the best interests of the minor children. The amount of parenting time can often vary and is dependant upon the judge. However, unless there are unusual circumstances, most non-custodial parents can expect to have parenting time with their children on alternate weekends, one evening each week, alternate holidays, and for an extended period in the summer vacation, usually four to six weeks non consecutive.
The following is the standard parenting time schedule used by the Macomb County Friend of the Court. Note that each county’s or individual judge’s schedule may be different but in whole it is primarily the same.
Continue reading: The Divorce Process – Part III: Property division
What makes us the right divorce attorneys for you?
Family Law Expertise
Most lawyers are in a general practice and do some of everything. One of our main focuses is on Family law and being expert at divorce, custody and support matters.
We are in court daily, working with the family court judges, their staff and clerks, the Friend of the Court office, the Bar Association and other attorneys working in this area. We pride ourselves on fighting hard for our clients while working well with everyone.
Our extensive experience and strong relationship with the courts and our peers leads many judges and attorneys to hire us to act as Mediators in other Family Law cases. Make no mistake; having a strong working relationship with the court can have a massive impact on your case. Unlike most attorneys, we have no fear of the court room and are in trial regularly against the best in the business. We see the judges every week and maintain strong ties with their staff.
Although every attorney can “handle” your case, Femminineo Attorneys cares about you and your family. We work extremely hard to keep this difficult process civil and to shelter your children from as much of the negative facets as possible.
Once your case is concluded, we will be there to help you with any post-judgment problems that may arise.
Everyone’s financial situation is different and we work with our clients to formulate a fee arrangement that works within your means.
We have handled every possible situation involving domestic law. We will do everything possible to wrap up your case in a timely manner, avoiding delays that cause unnecessary legal fees.
When your case cannot be easily solved, we will fight hard and use all of our resources to win. Unlike most attorneys, we have no fear of the court room and we regularly win cases against the best in the business at trial.
Unlike many attorneys who have a part-time typist and work 30 hours a week, we have an expert staff available all day long to assist you and provide immediate service. We are available to our clients 24 hours a day through our hot line at 586-854-3654.
At Femminineo Attorneys, your case will be handled by an experienced family law attorney. Each of our attorneys in our family law division has many years of experience in handling family law matters.
We encourage you to see these differences for yourself and call today to speak with one of our partners or schedule a free consultation at our office.
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(586) 854 3654
Michigan Divorce Attorney
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The information presented within this website is for general information purposes and is NOT and should not be considered as being “legal advice”. You should not act on any information presented herein without the verifying same with your attorney.